学历教育 - 外语类
听力原文：Narrator Listen to part of a lecture on New-age Transport. Professor Computerized design, advanced materials and new technologies are being used to produce machines of a type never seen before. It looks as if it came straight from the set of Star Wars. It has four-wheel drive and rises above rocky surfaces. It lowers and raises its nose when going up and down hills. And when it comes to a river, it turns amphibious; two hydrojets power it along by blasting water under its body. There is room for two passengers and a driver, who sit inside a glass bubble operating electronic, aircraft-type controls. A vehicle so daring on land and water needs windscreen wipers —but it doesnt have any. Water molecules are disintegrated on the screens surface by ultrasonic sensors. This unusual vehicle is the Racoon. It is an invention not of Hollywood but of Renault, a rather conservative French state-owned carmaker, better known for its family hatchbacks. Renault built the Racoon to explore new freedoms for designers and engineers created by advances in materials and manufacturing progresses. Renault is thinking about startlingly different cars: other producers have radical new ideas for trains, boats and aeroplanes. The first of the new freedoms is in design. Powerful computer-aided design（CAD)systems can replace with a click of a computer mouse hours of laborious work done on thousands of drawing boards, so new products, no matter how complicated, can be developed much faster. For the first time, Boeing will not have to build a giant replica of its new airliner, the 777, to make sure all the bits fit together. Its CAD system will take care of that. But Renault is taking CAD further. It claims the Racoon is the worlds first vehicle to be designed within the digitized world of virtual reality. Complex programs were used to simulate the vehicle and the terrain that it was expected to cross. This allowed a team led by Patrick le Quement, Renaults industrial-design director, to "drive" it long before a prototype existed. Renault is not alone in thinking that virtual reality will transform. automotive design. In Detroit, Ford is also investigating its potential. Jack Telnack, the firms former head of design, would like designers in different parts of the world to work more closely together, linked by computers. They would do more than style. cars. Virtual reality will allow engineers to peer inside the working parts of a vehicle. Designers will watch bearings move, oil flow, gears mesh and hydraulics pump. As these techniques catch on, even stranger vehicles are likely to come along. Transforming these creations from virtual reality to actual reality will also become easier, especially with advances in materials. Firms that once bashed everything out of steel now find that new alloys of composite materials are changing the rules of manufacturing. At the same time, old materials keep getting better, as their producers try to secure their place in the factory of the future. This competition is increasing the pace of development of all materials. Again, the Racoon reflects this race between the old and the new. It uses conventional steel and what Renault describes as new "high-limit elastic steel" in its chassis. This steel is 30% lighter than the usual kind. The Racoon also has parts made from composites. Renault plans to replace the petrol engine with a small gas turbine, which could be made from heat resisting ceramics, and use it to run a generator that would provide power for electric motors at each wheel. With composites, it is possible to build many different parts into a single component. Fiat, Italys helped to design for General Motors, uses a two-stroke engine in a "power pod" at the rear of the vehicle. The engine has been developed from an East German design and weighs 40% less than a conventional engine but produces as much power. It is expected to run clearly enough to quality as an ultra-low emissions vehicle under Californias tough new rules. Now get ready to answer the questions. You may use your notes to help you answer
Products and services that were once the preserve of a very wealthy few—from designer handbags to fast cars, bespoke tailoring and domestic servants—are increasingly becoming accessible, if not to everyone, then certainly to millions of people around the world. This may appall killjoy economists, but it is arguably even more upsetting to those super-rich folk who have long been able to afford luxury, and may in one crucial respect even regard it as a necessity. As Thorstein Veblen noted over a century ago in "The Theory of the Leisure Class"—the book in which he coined the phrase "conspicuous consumption"—spending lavishly on expensive but essentially wasteful goods and services is "evidence of wealth'. In the 21st century, "being a conspicuous consumer is getting harder and harder", says James Lawson of Ledbury Research, a firm that advises luxury businesses on market trends. What does a billionaire have to do to get noticed nowadays？
Being a millionaire, for instance, is becoming commonplace. In 2004 there were 8.3 million households worldwide with assets of at least $1 million, up by 7% on a year earlier, according to the latest annual survey by Merrill Lynch and Capgemini. The newly wealthy are often desperate to affirm their status by conspicuously consuming the favoured brands of the already rich. In developed countries this can be seen, in its extreme form, in the rise of "Bling"—jewellery, diamonds and other luxuries sported initially by rappets. The number of luxury buyers in the developed world is also being swelled by two other trends. First, consumers are increasingly adopting a "trading up, trading down" shopping strategy. Many traditional mid-market shoppers are abandoning middle-of-the-range products for a mix of lots of extremely cheap goods and a few genuine luxuries that they would once have thought out of their price league.
Alongside this "selective extravagance" is the growth of "fractional ownership": time-shares in luxury goods and services formerly available only to those paying full price. Fractional ownership first got noticed when firms such as Net Jets started selling access to private jets. It has since spread to luxury resorts, fast cars and much more. In America, From Bags to Riches—"better bags, better value"—lets less-well-off people rent designer handbags. In Britain, Damon Hill, a former racing driver, has launched P1 International. A L2,500 （$4,300) joining fee, plus annual membership of ￡13,750, buys around 50-70 driving days a year in cars ranging from a Range Rover Sport to a Bentley or a Ferrari. As a result, "the price of entry for much of what traditionally was available to the top 0.001% is now far lower", says Mr Lawson, who notes the sorry implications for a would-be conspicuous consumer: "How do I know if the guy who drives past me in a Ferrari owns it or is just renting it for the weekend？"
Demand for luxury is also soaring from emerging economies such as Russia, India, Brazil and China. Antoine Colonna, an analyst at Merrill Lynch, estimates that last year Chinese consumers already accounted for 11% of the worldwide revenues of luxury-goods firms, with most of their buying done outside mainland; China. He forecasts that by 2014, they will have overtaken both American and Japanese consumers, becoming the world's leading luxury shoppers, yielding 24% of global revenues. These emerging consumers have a big appetite for the top luxury brands—and the owners of those brands are increasingly keen to oblige. Russia is producing today's most determinedly conspicuous consumers. Roman Abramovich, the best-known oligarch not in jail, has conspicuously set new standards in buying mansions, ski resorts and soccer teams. For the already rich, strategies such as splashing out on ever bigger houses, longer yachts or getting special treatment from luxury-goods firms does not contribute much marginal conspicuousness. Meanwhile, the list of new
A．More people have more money.
B．More people can afford servants.
C．People are becoming
Sometimes students have great difficulty in ____ facts from fiction and often believe such things exist.
A． telling B. talking C. saying D. speaking
According to Paragraph 2, which of the following is NOT true of the perpetual studiers when they are in school？
A．They usually sit in the front of the class and write pages of notes a day.
B．They talk to someone only at the end of class when the lecture is over.
C．They take out all their books and study for the classes that they have the next day.
D．They rarely take part in something of a social life.
A. She likes to do her homework by herself. B. She has finished her homework. C. She will cook the lunch by herself. D. She will help the man to cook the lunch.
It s required that the students______the term paper tomorrow.
What can we learn from the conversation？
A．The man is very grateful for the woman's help.
B．The man is ready to face any problem.
C．The man is not satisfied with the woman's advice.
Apart from a handful of weather stations, within 2 000 miles of the South Pole there is hot a single tree, industry, or ______.
We know for sure that colonization began at the end of the 15th century.
If the relationship 【B1】 two persons is 【B2】 become friendship, there 【B3】 be understanding. Unless you can know and comprehend what it is 【B4】 the other person values and seeks, you 【B5】 establish a deep bond between you. There may be admiration, 【B6】 scarcely affection. Understanding and a 【B7】 of sharing is essential to this. The understanding may not be of strengths 【B8】 but of weaknesses, too. It is 【B9】 that "a friend is 【B10】 who knows and understands all about us and loves us 【B11】 the same". There must be confidence 【B12】 loyalty. Have you 【B13】 kept a person whom you once thought you might 【B14】 as a friend just as 【B15】 acquaintance because you could not trust her？ Perhaps you found her 【B16】 secrets you had given her with many 【B17】 Possibly you overheard some slighting remark she made 【B18】 you or someone else for 【B19】 she had vowed high regard. In such cases you have been forced to recognize that this person could not be trusted. You could safely offer your friendliness but 【B20】 friendship.
Machel: Can you come to my house for lunch on Friday evening？ Tom: Oh, I'm sorry. I can't make it. Maehel: ______.
A．How about tomorrow then？
B．What do you want to make？
C．OK. See you then.
According to Virginia Postrel, what is the difference between the rich in developed and developing countries？
A．The rich in developed countries are more concerned with enjoying their lives.
B．The rich in developing countries live closer to poor people.
C．The rich in developed countries have better taste in luxury goods.
The word external in Paragraph 3 is closest in meaning to______.
Which of the following nutritional factors makes a person look older？
A．Eating lots of fruit and vegetables.
B．Not eating enough protein.
C．Eating lots of meat.
The amount of money for a tip ______.
A．is the same across restaurants and hotels
B．depends on how much one pays for his meal
C．generally varies according to the size of one's bag in a hotel
D．is usually small for a cup of coffee at a lunch counter
Keystone pipeline should be rejected because it is a signal to reduce fossil fuels.