To ________ is to save and protect, to leave what we ourselves enjoy in such good condition that others may also share the enjoyment.
George Annas would probably agree that doctors should be punished if they ______.
A．manage their patients incompetently
B．give patients more medicine than needed
C．reduce drug dosages for their patients
D．prolong the needless suffering of the patients
Researchers are increasingly interested in manipulating the environment early in children's lives when they are perceived to be at risk for impoverished intelligence. In a program conducted in North Carolina by Craig Ramey and his associates, pregnant women with IQs averaging 80 were recruited for a study. After their babies were born, half of the infants were cared for during the day at an educational day-care center and half were reared at home by their mothers. Both groups of children were given medical care and dietary supplements, and their families were given social services if they requested them.
At the age of 3, the children who attended the educational day-care center had significantly higher IQs than did the home-reared children. This difference was likely due to the decline in the IQs of the home-reared children during the period from 12 to 18 months of age. By the time the children were 5 years old, 39 percent of the home-reared children had IQs below 85 but only 11 percent of the educational day-care children had IQs this low. In the most recent evaluation of this project, positive effects of educational day-care on the intellectual development and academic achievement of the children were evident at age 12.
Some parents, such as those in Ramey's study, have difficulty providing an adequate environment for the intellectual needs of their infants. Once these difficulties are a recurring part of the family system, changing efforts probably will be more difficult and costly. Early intervention in the family system is directed at changing parental adaptive and responsive functioning so that permanent negative effects are minimized.
In another investigation, the Infant Health and Development Program, early intervention with low birth weight children revealed that both home visitation(探望)and an educational child curriculum improved the children's IQs, decreased behavior. problems, and improved the home environment. The intervention was more effective with mothers with low educational attainment than those with high educational attainment, 'more effective for African-American than White children, and effective for most at- risk children.
Intervention programs have the most positive effects on children's well-being when they (a) begin as early as possible, (b) provide services to parents as well as to the children, (c) have a low child-teacher ratio, (d) have high parental involvement, and (e) have frequent contacts. In one review of family intervention studies, intervention was more effective when there were eleven or more contacts between the intervener and the family. While eleven sessions is a some- what arbitrary number, it does indicate that a certain duration of contact is necessary for intervention success.
From the first sentence we learn that researchers ______.
A．have increased the risks to child growth by manipulating the natural environment
B．are increasingly aware of the effects of environmental factors on intelligence development
C．are increasingly interested in figuring out how intelligence is developed in early child- hood
D．are increasingly interested in manipulating the environment without being aware of the risks involved to children
The two Harvard economists note in their study that, for much of the 20th century,
A．enrollment kept decreasing in virtually all American colleges and universities
B．the labor market preferred high-school graduates to college graduates
C．competition for university admissions was far more fierce than today
D．the gap between the earnings of college and high-school graduates narrowed
听力原文： Valentine's Day is the time of the year when couples show their love for each other by sending cards, flowers and chocolates. But it is not only about public displays of affection: in recent years it has also become big business. In the UK alone, more than ~ 20 million is spent on flowers, while in the United States over $ I billion is spent on chocolates.
(32)Although Valentine's Day has become a global industry with more than 80 million roses sold worldwide, the origins of the day are unclear and hidden in the mists of time. Nobody knows exactly who St Valentine was, although some historians suggest he was a Roman killed by a Roman Emperor in the third century AD. It is said that the first recorded Valentine's card was sent by the imprisoned Duke of Orleans in 1415. It is believed that he sought solace by writing love poems to his wife.
Valentine's Day, or its equivalent, is now celebrated in many countries around the world. However, the traditions often differ from place to place. (33)In Japan, for example, it is customary for the woman to send chocolates to the man, while (34)in Korea April 14th is known as "Black Day" and is when the unfortunate men who receive nothing on Valentine's Day gather to eat noodles and commiserate with each other.
Valentine's cards can also be used for less than romantic purposes. (35)Police in the UK city of Liverpool sent Valentine's cards to criminals who failed to appear in court or have not paid fines. The cards contained the verse, "Roses are red, violets are blue, you've got a warrant, and (35)we'd love to see you." Who says romance is dead?
A．More than 20 million.
B．More than 1 billion.
C．More than 80 million.
D．More than 3 billion.
The terrorists might have planted a bomb on a plane in Athens, set to ________ when it arrived in New York.
A) go off
B) get off
C) come off
D) carry off
A．Why his parents wanted to go to Gettysburg.
B．Why his family's vacation plans changed ten years ago.
C．Where his family went for a vacation ten years ago.
D．When his family went on their last vacation.